Cefaclor is indicated in the treatment of the following infections: Otitis media, Lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, Upper respiratory tract infections, including pharyngitis and tonsillitis, Urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis and cystitis, Skin and soft tissue infections, Sinusitis
Second generation Cephalosporins
Cefaclor is a second generation cephalosporin antibiotic which has stability against b-lactamase inactivation and possesses a broad spectrum of activity. Cefaclor is active against the following organisms in vitro: Alpha and beta haemolytic Streptococci, Staphylococci; including coagulase-positive, coagulase negative and penicillinase-producing strains, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A b-haemolytic Streptococci), Branhamella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella species Haemophilus influenzae, including ampicillin-resistant strains. Cefaclor is generally effective in the eradication of Streptococci from the nasopharynx.
- Usual dose: 250 mg 8 hrly.
- Bronchitis & pneumonia: 250 mg tid.
- Sinusitis: 500 mg tid for 10 days.
- Pneumonia & other more severe infections: Max: 4 gm/day for 28 days.
- Acute gonococcal urethritis: 3 gm as a single dose combined with probenecid 1 gm.
- Recommended dose: 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses 8 hrly.
- Bronchitis & pneumonia: 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses tid.
- Serious infections, sinusitis, otitis media & infections: caused by less susceptible organisms 40 mg/kg/day in divided doses. Max: 1 gm/day.
May be taken with or without food.
The nephrotoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin and tobramicin may be enhanced by any cephalosporin. Therefore, one should be cautious in concomitant use of these categories of drugs.
Cefaclor is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the Cephalosporin group of antibiotics.
Gastro-intestinal: Diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting have been reported. Hypersensitivity: Allergic reactions such as eruptions, pruritis and urticaria have been observed. These reactions usually subside upon discontinuation of therapy. Serum sickness like reactions have been reported.
Haematological: Eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia, transient lymphocytosis and leucopenia may occur rarely. Hepatic: Transient hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice, slight elevation in AST, ALT or alkaline phosphate values have been reported rarely.
Renal: Reversible interstitial nephritis has occurred rarely, also slight elevations in blood urea or serum creatinine or abnormal urinalysis.
Central Nervous System: Reversible hyperactivity, nervousness, confusion, hypertonia, dizziness, hallucinations and somnolence have been reported rarely.
Pregnancy & Lactation
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. This drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Small amounts of Cefaclor have been detected in mother's milk. The effect on nursing infants is not known. Caution should be exercised when Cefaclor is administered to a nursing woman.
Precautions & Warnings
Cefaclor should be administered with caution in the presence of markedly impaired renal function. Dosage adjustments for patients with moderate or severe renal impairment are not usually required.
Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress and diarrhoea would be anticipated.
Treatment: Unless 5 times the normal total daily dose has been ingested, gastrointestinal decontamination will not be necessary. General management may consist of supportive therapy.
Store in a cool and dry place. Protect from light.
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